Early morning overcast skies in north London eventually gave way to gentle but persistent rain which was sufficient to ensure the pitch and square remained fully covered.
The match had been due to start at 11:00am (1000 GMT) but with rain still falling and the skies above Lord's increasingly dark, the umpires called it a day at 4:50pm (1550 GMT).
It was the first time a whole day's Test play in England had been lost to bad weather since August 24 2013 when the fourth day of the fifth Ashes clash at The Oval was abandoned without a ball bowled.
England lead the current five-match series 1-0 after a 31-run victory in the first Test at Edgbaston last week.
They will, however, make at least two changes to their side.
England captain Joe Root confirmed on Wednesday that Ollie Pope, a 20-year-old Surrey batsman, would make his Test debut in place of the dropped Dawid Malan.
England have yet to decide whether Chris Woakes, a fellow pace-bowling all-rounder, or off-spinner Moeen Ali will replace Stokes.
Neither England nor India, who might also make changes, are obliged to confirm their teams until the toss takes place.