Holder struck an imposing 202* and took two important first-innings wickets on his home ground in Bridgetown, Barbados to help his side complete a 381-run thumping of England in the first of the three Tests.
The 27-year-old's man-of-the-match display saw him go ahead of Shakib-al-Hasan and Ravindra Jadeja in the International Cricket Council's all-rounder rankings.
Although the ICC rankings did not exist when Sobers was still playing, they have since been applied retrospectively to generations of former cricketers.
According to the devised system, Sobers last topped the rankings in 1974, the year of his retirement.
Sobers, widely regarded the best all-rounder of all times, made a cap presentation to debutant John Campbell before the Barbados Test started. The 82-year-old, a fellow Bajan, was present in the stadium throughout to witness the impressive display of Holder.
John Campbell receives Test cap from Sir Garfield Sobers ©AFP
West Indies chief executive Johnny Grave criticised what he said was a 'lack of respect' shown to his side by former England captains Geoffrey Boycott and Andrew Flintoff.
Boycott, in a pre-series column, labelled the West Indies as "very ordinary, very average cricketers" while Flintoff, like Holder a pace-bowling all-rounder, tweeted his disbelief at the Caribbean skipper's double century.
Jason Holder is only second to Nathan Astle in fastest double-centuries vs England ©Cricingif
"Former players have said some stuff I think is unwarranted and borderline disrespectful," Grave told BBC Radio's Test Match Special.
"I saw Andrew Flintoff say he can't believe Jason Holder got a double hundred, yet I think Jason Holder is a fantastic cricketer and has been performing so fantastically over the last 18 months -- a brilliant captain.
"Criticism of our players and suggestions that they're not world-class is unfair. It doesn't seem to happen when England play other opposition. I think it's unwarranted and not true.
"I'm hoping everyone gets to see that in the next few weeks of this series."