The Test match between the new Asian rivals marks only the third instance of the war-torn country playing a five-day game since they obtained Test status two years ago.
Afghanistan had opposing levels of success in their previous two outings in the longest format - they were thrashed by India in their debut game but defeated fellow newcomers Ireland in March this year.
The turmoil that has beset Afghanistan cricket in recent months adds pressure on leg-spinner Rashid's first stint of leading the side as the permanent skipper in all three forms of the game.
He becomes the youngest ever Test captain at 20 years and 350 days, overtaking Zimbabwe's Tatenda Taibu, who was eight days older.
"It's quite good to be leading the team at such young age I think. It's a big opportunity for me to learn something in a very young age," an upbeat Rashid said ahead of the match.
"Representing your team in Test matches is always a huge proud moment and a pleasure for me. But leading the team is something very special."
Rashid replaces top-order batsman Rahmat Shah in the job despite the latter never getting a chance to captain the team.
Afghanistan are up against a strong Bangladesh side that has been dominant at home over the last few years, having achieved victories against the likes of England and Australia.
With a potent spin attack driving Bangladesh's success, interim Afghan coach Andy Moles still believes his team can upset the hosts provided they show "application and concentration".
"We have massive respect for Bangladesh team. They are a level above us. (But) we are not scared of Bangladesh," Moles told reporters in Chittagong.
"We are under no illusion that this is going to be a tough examination of our skills. If we could show application and concentration, we are capable of doing something special over the next five days."