Skipper Mominul Haque took the blame for Bangladesh's batting collapse after India's pacemen combined to bowl them out for 150 on the opening day of the first Test on Thursday.
Mohammed Shami claimed three wickets, while fellow quicks Ishant Sharma and Umesh Yadav took two apiece to pack off the tourists early in the final session in Indore.
Mominul's decision to bat first on a green wicket backfired after they slipped to 31 for three with Yadav, Sharma and Shami sharing the spoils in the morning session.
The captain then put on 68 runs for the fourth wicket with Mushfiqur Rahim, who made 43, before Ravichandran Ashwin bowled Mominul for 37 to start the slide for Bangladesh.
"If we had started well, the question wouldn't have been asked in first place," Mominul said on his decision to bat on a green pitch.
"Me and Mushfiq had a good partnership. I think I should take the blame for getting out at the wrong time. If I would have stayed on, it could have been different."
Mominul said he thought he "made a tactical error" after the left-hander misjudged an incoming delivery from Ashwin that rattled the batsman's off stump.
India were 86 for one at stumps after Rohit Sharma was caught behind off paceman Abu Jayed for six.
Mayank Agarwal, on 37, and Cheteshwar Pujara, on 43, put on an unbeaten 72-run stand to see off the day's play.
Agarwal survived a reprieve on 32 when Imrul Kayes dropped an easy chance at slip off Abu. Pujara looked solid in his 61-ball stay so far as he hit seven boundaries.
But it was the Indian bowlers who stood out as Shami ended Mushfiqur's resistance after getting wickets on successive deliveries to stop the Bangladesh tail from wagging.
Shami bowled Mushfiqur and then trapped new man Mehidy Hasan lbw, prompting the umpires to break for tea.
Taijul Islam then played out Shami's hat-trick ball after the break, but was later run out for one. Yadav cleaned up Ebadat Hossain to wrap up the innings in 58.3 overs.
At the start, Bangladesh endured three maidens before getting their first run through Imrul, but he managed just five more before becoming the first wicket.
Sharma struck in the next over to send Shadman Islam back to the pavilion, also for six.
Batting remained tough for Mominul and Mohammed Mithun, who was trapped lbw for 13 by Shami finding swing and seam movement.
"Sometimes you feel that every spell they bowl, something is happening or they make it happen," Ashwin, who claimed his 250th wicket in home Tests, said of his team's pacemen.
"I think Shami, Ishant and Umesh have been bowling well as a pack and if you add (Jasprit) Bumrah to it over the last few months or a year in Test cricket, I think it's one of the most lethal pace attacks going around in the world."
The champion off-spinner added though that the hosts were surprised by Bangladesh's decision to bat first on a wicket with a green tinge.
It could have been worse for Bangladesh had India not been sloppy in the field.
Rahane, who spilled three chances at first slip, dropped Mominul when he had made only three, and Mushfiqur survived when put down by skipper Virat Kohli at third slip.
Bangladesh, who lost the preceding Twenty20 series 2-1, had a troubled build-up when star player and captain Shakib Al Hasan was banned for two years, with one year suspended, for failing to report approaches by bookmakers.
The two-match series is Bangladesh's first in the new world Test championship currently led by India.