Ben Stokes' outstanding 176 and Dom Sibley's terrific 120 took England to an imposing total of 469-9 declared before Sam Curran prised out West Indies opener John Campbell to cap off a dominant performance for the hosts on day two.
West Indies could have gone to stumps with the loss of another wicket had the lbw appeal against nightwatchman Alzarri Joseph been sent upstairs by England in the form of a review.
Left-arm paceman Curran, who might not have played if Jofra Archer had not breached the biosecurity protocols ahead of the match, made the breakthrough when an inswinger had Campbell lbw on review to leave West Indies 16-1.
The day belonged to Sibley and Stokes, whose partnership was the second-highest for the fourth-wicket by England against the West Indies, behind the celebrated stand of 411 shared by Peter May and Colin Cowdrey at Edgbaston in 1957.
Sibley's hundred was the fourth-slowest ton in Tests by an England batsman since 1990 as the opener batted for 471 minutes to complete a 312-ball century featuring a mere four fours.
But the 24-year-old Warwickshire right-hander's second hundred in his eight Tests, following his 133 not out against South Africa at Cape Town in January, was a valuable innings.
And he made normally reliable West Indies captain Jason Holder pay for dropping him in the slips on 68.
Run-scoring was difficult against a swinging ball and on a sluggish outfield, with even the usually fluent Stokes taking nearly six hours and 285 balls to complete his 10th Test century.
But Stokes' third fifty came off just 46 balls and, having given Sibley a "head start" of 31.2 overs, he overtook his team-mate's total as he led from the front bat, even though he had handed back the captaincy to Root, who missed last week's match to attend the birth of his second child.
England resumed on 207-3, with Sibley 86 not out and Stokes, unbeaten on 59.
Stokes, 99 not out at lunch, went to three figures with a cheeky reverse-swept four against off-spinner Roston Chase.
The left-handed batsman then upped the tempo against the new ball, notably with a remarkable check-drive six over midwicket off Joseph.
Having batted for over nine hours Sibley holed out to deep midwicket off Chase.
Kemar Roach checked England's progress when he struck for the first time this series with two wickets in two balls.
In his 71st over of the campaign the persevering paceman had Stokes, attempting an ambitious reverse sweep, caught behind to end a 356-ball innings featuring 17 fours and two sixes before Woakes was caught in the gully.
Jos Buttler (40) and Dom Bess (31 not out) made useful runs, with Chase taking 5-172 in 44 overs.