The spat revealed the depths of rivalry between the two camps, with Lyon and Prior waging a war of words over the 2013-2014 series, where Australia humiliated England to complete just the third whitewash in Ashes history.
Lyon told reporters on Wednesday ahead of the first Test in Brisbane that many in the England squad remain shaken by left-armer Mitchell Johnson's assault four years ago.
"Last time someone spouted a whole load of BS about me I stayed quiet not this time," Prior tweeted.
"To be clear I may have been playing badly fair enough but there was no way I was getting on a plane home. You've embarrassed yourself @NathLyon421 & this game has a funny way of biting back."
Prior added on the social media site that he hoped Lyon would not be part of a losing home team.
"I still remember being sat on the outfield at the SCG after winning 3-1 while your press & fans were tearing into the Oz players. You want to end careers? Just make sure its (sic) not yours that ends," he wrote.
Lyon's comments were backed up by Johnson, who said his former team-mate was only saying what "we all heard before".
"But if you (Prior) say it isn't true then we will take your word for it," added Johnson, who retired from international cricket in 2015.
The first Ashes Test starts in Brisbane on Thursday, with England captain Joe Root saying his team were "about due" to end their poor record at the Gabba and upset Australia.