Adam Zampa grabbed three scalps to help dismiss India for 237 after Khawaja's 100 off 106 balls took the tourists to 272 for nine.
Having been two down to the hosts, Australia bounced back to win the third and fourth ODIs to level the series
Kohli was not pleased with the decision but accepted his team were sloppy in the field against a superior Australia in the post-match presentation
Turner's 43-ball blitz in Mohali gave Australia the win by four wickets with 13 balls to spare in their highest ever run chase.
Fast bowlers Pat Cummins and Jhye Richardson also took three wickets each and combined to wipe off the Indian tail
The Indian team will also donate their $8,500 match fees from the game to a fund for the families of those killed in last month's attack
The Aussies were bowled out for 242 off 40.3 overs with Marcus Stoinis top-scoring with 52.
Maxwell's knock laced with 7 fours and 9 sixes eclipsed Indian skipper Virat Kohli's 72 off 38 balls that lifted the hosts to 190 for four