Du Plessis lamented the loss of off-spinner Simon Harmer, who signed a Kolpak contract in 2016 and has not appeared for South Africa since then.
The Proteas could manage to add only a single run to their overnight total before Nadeem secured the last two wickets in successive balls.
South Africa were 132-8 at the close of play with India requiring two wickets to wrap up a series sweep over Faf du Plessis' men.
"Those catches, they stick or they don't. So unfortunately it wasn't our way, it was Rohit's. He played well, so well done to him."
South Africa were in trouble at nine for two, with Indian fast bowlers sending the opposition openers back to the pavilion in Ranchi.
"If he starts coming good top of the order, it changes everything for the Indian team, even when you're touring."
Sharma, on 117, combined with Ajinkya Rahane, on 83, to put on an unbeaten 185-run stand after the hosts were wobbling at 39-3.
South Africa seek to turn the tables on India and get a consolatory win to bag crucial Test championship points after losing the Test series
Aiden Markram will not be available for the third and final Test against India after he sustained a wrist injury during the previous game in Pune.
Cricketers who hung their boots in 2019
DG ISPR clears the confusion regarding his viral pic
Naseem Shah included as Pakistan announce 15-man squad for Under-19 World Cup
Young Zeeshan Malik continues to impress everyone
Kohli displaces Smith to reclaim top spot in Test rankings
Usman Shinwari, Faheem Ashraf bag contracts with Melbourne Renegades
Resurgent Northern set up final clash with Central Punjab
PSL 2020 Draft, Players List, TV Channels and Rules
'Picking up 20 wickets, constructing partnerships crucial to success in Australia' – Azhar Ali
Three takeaways for Pakistan in Australia Test series